OCTAGENE SOLUTIONS INC.
NATURES THRIVE ENTERPRISES
WHY ORGANIC FARMING IS BETTER?
No PESTICIDES AND HERBICIDES organic foods are not sprayed with petroleum based toxins that poison farm workers, pollute our soils, water and air, and are bad for our health.s
organic agriculture is knowledge intensive, one could believe that research would have played a major role in the establishment of organic agriculture. So far, there is a strong inertia within research establishments against organic research. Therefore, liberal investment of funds for organic research will be necessary to ensure that sufficient attention s given to the nascent organic sector. In addition, there is a need for research that is attuned to the needs of the producers. Research priorities, therefore, need to be developed in close consultation with the stakeholders. Of late, public funding of organic research programs is increasing, although institutions are finding it hard to have skilled human resources for this purpose. Innovations in organic production techniques, food processing, food marketing, and food retailing are needed for balanced growth of the sector.
Mainstreaming Organic Farming
a. The countries should perform in-depth assessment of their general agricultural policies, programs, and plans to understand how these affect the conditions of the organic sector.
b. Governments should define priority areas of the organic sector before planning any organic investment strategy. Objectives for government involvement for the development of the organic sector need to be clarified.
c. The goals behind the support to the organic sector should link to general agricultural policies as much as possible, especially if organic agriculture is being promoted as a mainstream solution.
d. Focus on creating adequate human resources in research and extension should be one of the priority areas. Therefore, investment strategies for institutional strengthening in these areas will be necessary for each Asian nation wanting to promote organic agriculture.
e. Governments should facilitate access to certification services, either by stimulating foreign certification bodies to establish offices in Asia or, even better, to support the development of local service providers. In some countries, especially where the private
The six classes of plant hormones are auxins, gibberellins,cytokinins,abscisic acid, ethylene and jasmonates - jasmonic acids.
1.Auxins are growth-regulating substances with the chemical name indole-3-acetic acid (IES). They are produced throughout the plant with higher concentrations in the growing tips such as the tip of coleoptiles, buds, growing tips of leaves and roots wherein it is synthesized by tryptophan. When present in lower concentrations, they bring about the elongation of the coleoptiles of shoot and roots. Higher concentrations inhibit the elongation of shoot and root. It is due to the stimulation of ethylene, a gaseous hydrocarbon and a plant hormone. Auxins are actively involved in inhibition or delay of abscission and retardation of senescence. They play an important role in accelerating cell division in the cambium, thus bringing about secondary thickening, development of ovary into fruit, initiation and maintenance of apical dominance, tropic movements, and parthenocarpy.
2.Gibberellins are chemically gibberellic acids. Gibberellins are found in abundance in young, expanding organs such as embryos, young apical leaves, buds, seeds and root tips. Gibberellins are actively involved in overcoming genetic dwarfism, bolting wherein the stem elongates 5-6 times its original height, breaking dormancy, seed germination, flowering, substitution of cold treatment known as Vernalization, stimulating maleness, bringing about curvature among plant stems, etiolation, delaying ripening of fruits, increasing the size and yield of fruits, parthenocarpy, seed production and increasing sugar content.
3.Cytokinins are plant hormones, which were discovered as a synthetic product 6-furfuryl amino purine. They are most abundant in roots, young leaves, developing fruits, endosperms of seeds, coconut milk and Apple fruit extracts. They are actively involved in cell division, morphogenesis, apical dominance, delaying senescence, breaking seed dormancy, flowering in short-day plants, inducing femaleness in flowers of grape-vine and parthenocarpy.
4.Abscisic acid is a mildly acidic plant growth hormone. It acts as a growth inhibitor. It counteracts the influence of growth promoting hormones like auxin, gibberellins and cytokinins. Thus, ABA is also known as stress hormone or dormin. It is present in a number of plant organs such as stems, leaves, buds, fruits and seeds. It is actively involved in inducing dormancy to overcome stress conditions in plants, promoting senescence and abscission, inducing cold hardiness, controlling the growth of plants under check and thus known as antigibberellic hormone, parthenocarpy and starch hydrolysis.
5.Ethylene is a gaseous phytohormone, which stimulates transverse growth in plants. It is formed in all parts of plants, and occurs in high concentration in leaves, dormant buds and flowers undergoing senescence. Its formation increases with ripening of fruits. Excess of auxin also stimulates the production of ethylene. Ethylene is actively involved in inhibiting cell division in root and shoot meristems, promoting abscission and senescence of leaves, flowers and fruits, inhibiting the blossoming of flowers, breaking dormancy of different plant organs except lateral buds, stimulating feminizing effect, and accelerating fruit ripening due to sharp rise in respiration known as climacteric rise or climacteric, inducing epinasty and apical dominance.
6.Jasmonates - Jasmonic acids are plant hormones which have both activating and inhibiting effects. They also have synergistic and antagonistic effects on other hormones. They regulate leaf senescence and act as defense mechanism against fungi. They induce the accumulation of jasmonate-induced-proteins in plants in the nucleus and vacuole. One of the naturally Jasmonate is 1alpha, 2beta-3-oxo-2-(cis-2-pentenyl)-cyclopentane acetic acid (Jasmonic acid). Jasmonic acid is involved in the induction of synthesis of the insect attractants through a multistep biochemical chain. This induction is initiated as soon as the insects bites and damages the plant tissue. Thus, Jasmonic acid acts as a defence mechanism against parasitism of herbivores, thus assist in reducing agronomic losses by herbivores.
CROPS : Used for All types of field crops, cash crops, tubes, spices, plantation crops, horticulture crops, ornamental and green house flowers, etc...
What is organic farming?
Organic farming works in harmony with nature rather than against it. This involves using techniques to achieve good crop yields without harming the natural environment or the people who live and work in it. The methods and materials
that organic farmers use are summarized as follows:
To keep and build good soil structure and fertility:
• recycled and composted crop wastes and animal manures the right soil cultivation at the right time
• crop rotation
• green manures and legumes
• mulching on the soil surface to control pests, diseases and weeds:
• careful planning and crop choice
• the use of resistant crops
• good cultivation practice
• crop rotation
•encouraging useful predators that eat pests
• increasing genetic diversity
• using natural pesticides
Organic farming also involves:
• careful use of water resources
• good animal husbandry
A modern approach to farming
On an organic farm, each technique would not normally be used on its own. the farmer would use a range of organic methods at the same time to allow them to work together for the maximum benefit. For example the use of green manures and careful cultivation, together provide better control of weeds than if the techniques were used on their own.
The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) has produced a set of international organic standards, laid down by people from many countries. These give guidelines about what organic farming is and how it should be practiced on the farm.
International standards are also used to help countries set their own standards, which take into account different farming systems. Many countries have an organic standards authority which lays down national standards and awards a
symbol to farms which have followed the standards. This symbol then allows farmers to market certified organic produce. This is important, as it ensures that people know that the food which they buy is organic. the main principles of organic farming were laid down by IFOAM in 1992.
• To produce food of high nutritional quality in sufficient quantity.
• To interact in a constructive and life enhancing way with all natural systems and cycles.
• To encourage and enhance biological cycles within the farming system, involving micro-organisms, soil flora and fauna, plants and animals.
• To maintain and increase long term fertility of soils.
• To use, as far as possible, renewable resources in locally organized agricultural systems.
• To work, as far as possible, within a closed system with regard to organic matter and nutrient elements. This aims to reduce external inputs.
• To work, as far as possible, with materials and substances which can be reused r recycled